This handbook aims to capture the basic concepts of translational medicine, understood as a branch of the biomedical field that translates discoveries into the clinical setting. This discipline is currently closing the gap between basic science and clinical research. The book is intended to be straightforward, easy-to-read, intelligible and practical. It describes the basic principles of translational medicine, including major advances in genomics, new technologies, the processing of big data and biobanks. Regarding the biological foundations of translational medicine, we address concepts related to the molecular basis of cancer, inflammation, angiogenesis, stem cells and experimental models. More specifically on translational medicine, we present discoveries and breakthroughs in oncology, neuroscience, metabolic and systemic diseases, and public health. Finally, we have specific sections focused on clinical trials and biomarkers in the genomic era, advances in imaging techniques and entrepreneurship and innovation. Our purpose is to offer a manageable text to guide graduate and post-graduate students, professionals and researchers in biomedicine through the major technologies and advances that have occurred in the translational field. It is also intended to aid residents, fellows and physician-scientists working in hospitals and academic institutions.